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As the availability of parking spaces may substantially influence private vehicle travel, parking management is of utmost importance within cities. Traffic policies can influence the amount and cost of parking spaces on offer in a city and might decrease traffic due to a reduction of the use of cars for urban travel. Such policies should give a clear priority to bus and coach transport.
Example: In order to decrease traffic in the city centre, the city of Utrecht implemented several policies. This included the reformation and reallocation of parking spaces, an increase of parking charges and new circulation patterns. This resulted in the rise of the use of mass public transport from 42% to 52% and the reduction of car traffic in the city centre by 15%. Stockholm features parking areas at all city entrances, whilst offering some 40 dedicated coach parking spaces close to touristic sites inside the city. The city of Bremen welcomes visiting coaches and guarantees a coach-friendly city with a well-designed bus parking scheme. Most parking for coaches is centrally located, right by the main attractions, and is normally free of charge.
For more information:
Transport, Energy and CO2 – Moving Towards Sustainability, International Energy Agency, pp.250-55 http://www.iea.org/w/bookshop/add.aspx?id=365
Bremen and Stockholm applications for the IRU City Trophy Award 2009
Congestion charging & road pricing
Congestion charging was introduced into central London in February 2003. In July 2005 the basic charge was raised from GBP 5 to GBP 8 per day. In February 2007, the original central London congestion charging zone was extended westwards, creating a single enlarged congestion charging zone. This congestion charging contributes directly to radical improvements that have been made to bus services. Bus services in and around the western area were increased in advance of the last extension of the scheme. This was intended to provide additional public transport capacity for road users who opted to travel by bus in preference to continuing to use the car. Surveys of bus patronage indicate that the additional bus capacity has catered for the additional demand.
The Stockholm City Council implemented a full-scale congestion charging trial in 2006. A prerequisite was an extended collective/public transport service. Through additional departures, new vehicles and more Park & Ride facilities collective/public transport was made more attractive. Disability and social services transport, emergency vehicles, taxis, etc. were exempted from the congestion charging trial. In addition, Stockholm boasts parking areas at all city entrances, whilst at the same time offering some 40 dedicated coach parking spaces close to touristic sites inside the city
For more information:
Sustainable Urban Transport, Final report from the European project Trendsetter, p.36
CIVITAS in Europe, A proven framework for progress in urban mobility, p.10
What European framework for a sustainable urban transport, Green paper on urban transport, Position paper, UITP, p.4 www.uitp.org/mos/positionspapers/31-en.pdf
London congestion charging